If a person doesn’t hear the end of a beracha his friend (or the shatz) is making, he may still answer amein, provided that he knows which beracha is being concluded. It is forbidden to answer amein without knowing to which beracha it applies.
There is an obligation to say parshas hatamid in the morning, before starting shacharis. Some say that women also should say it, but the common custom is for women not to say it. However, it is praiseworthy if they do.
If parshas hatamid was omitted before shacharis, it is correct to say it after shacharis.
Bedtime Sh’ma (besides the sh’ma and the berachah and assorted tefillos):
- Tehillim 91: (preceded by vihyi no’am) Describes HaShem’s protection, and refers to nighttime fears.
- Tehillim 3: Talks about laying down to sleep, and waking up.
- Tehillim 128: Describes fear of haShem and a resulting berachah.
- Adon Olam: You should really know what Adon Olam is about.